Apicare New Zealand - Natural NZ Manuka Honey Skin Care

Ingredients A-Z

Grey = Synthetic   Green = Natural   Teal = Semi-synthetic   Gold = Bee Product

Any one of a series of saturated hydrocarbons.  The introduction of one or more alkyls into a compound makes the product more soluble.  The mixture is usually employed with surfactants, which have a tendency to float when not alkylated.   

The soothing and healing constituent in comfrey root it is used in skin-soothing cosmetics because of its ability to help heal wounds and skin ulcers and to stimulate the growth of healthy tissue.  It is non-toxic.

Aloe Vera has long been considered an effective soothing and healing ingredient for the treatment of burns and skin injuries.  Research has identified several reasons why Aloe Vera spurs wound healing.  It has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral compounds that help prevent wound infections and assist with wound healing. In addition it contains immune-stimulating and anti-inflammatory compounds, which stimulate collagen synthesis and skin regeneration. Aloe Vera gel contains vitamins A, B12 and E, plus the minerals zinc, magnesium and calcium, fatty acids, amino acids and is naturally rich in Vitamin C.

An ingredient that is a component of some fragrances, including our Warm Vanilla Fragrance.  

A mild surfactant with good foaming abilities derived from natural coconut oils / alcohols, it is a mild anionic surfactant cleanser. Used in our Cleanse Me 4 in 1 Wash.  

APRICOT (Prunus Armeniaca) KERNEL OIL
Apricot Kernel Oil contains essential fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids and is rich in vitamins A and E.  These components make Apricot kernel oil an excellent skin moisturiser.  Oleic and linoleic acids have anti-inflammatory properties and therefore make this a useful ingredient for use on irritated and sensitive skins.  It is readily absorbed by the skin and does not form oily residues.

Used as an anti-oxidant in cosmetic creams, it also has some preservative abilities and is thought to aid skin cells in repairing and reproducing themselves.  When applied topically it may help reduce lines and wrinkles, promote healing, aid in the development of collagen, and can even help increase your natural sun protection factor (SPF) to decrease sun damage. It is also an anti-oxidant, so it may help to reduce free-radical damage to the skin.

Ascorbyl Palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid creating a fat soluble form of Vitamin C. 

AVOCADO (Persea Gratissima) OIL
The oil from the pulpy green fruit of the genus persea originating in South America and Mexico.  The avocado is used in folk medicine as an aphrodisiac.  An emollient, this nourishing oil is used in natural cosmetics for its high fat, protein and Vitamin A, B1, B2, D and E components.  No known toxicity.

Beeswax is an excellent emollient and provides non-occlusive skin protection, meaning that it forms a protective yet breathable network on the skins surface which helps to limit moisture loss.  It is non-allergic, and has elastic and water repellent properties which allows it to sustain sunscreen action and provides greater permanence on skin or lip surfaces. 
Beeswax locks in moisture, fosters cells and protects skin from damaging environmental factors. It is a natural nourishing moisturiser and has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-allergenic and germicidal antioxidant properties. 
The Mayo Clinic recommends lip balm made from beeswax for chapped lip care and prevention.

BTMS-50 is a vegetable based conditioning agent.  The behentrimonium methosulfate is derived from the natural plant oil Colza (Rapeseed).  It is a mild emulsifier and an excellent conditioning agent.  It can be used in skin and hair care products and acts as a detangler in conditioners.    

Benzophenone and its derivatives form the backbone of many the sunscreens and sun protectants used in creams and lotions.  Benzophenone-3 provides UVB absorption, and more importantly, it provides some absorption in the short UVA II region (320-340 nm).  It also helps prevent deterioration of ingredients that might be affected by the ultra violet rays in ordinary daylight.  The CIR Expert Panel concludes this is a safe ingredient in the present practices of use and concentration. Used in our Protect Me Lip Balm.

An effective and proven broad spectrum preservative that is ECOCERT approved.

Bisabolol is the main component of the essential oil made from the German Chamomile plant.  Bisabolol helps administer active ingredients transdermally by enhancing skin penetration.  This is significant as bisabolol has anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties which can therfore be well administered.  It is a soothing and calming ingredient that is non-allergenic.

Borax is a naturally occurring mineral compound that can be used in skin care to assist in the emulsification of waxes.

An Ultra Violet filter used as a component of sunscreens.  It is often used to filter UVA but is known to be unstable, hence why it is used in conjunction with other sunprotection agents and stabilisers.  Used in our Protect Me Lip Balm.
From the flowers of pot marigolds.  Calendula is widely known as a healing herb due to it’s gentle, cooling & soothing properties.  Calendula oil is a truly magical oil and has been used for hundreds of years in skin care.  High in carotenes, phytosterols and polyphenols Calendula oil promotes skin healing & cell regeneration.  It provides an excellent base for salves, herbal ointments, facial creams, lotions and many other natural cosmetics.  Calendula oil is helpful for many types of skin inflammation - dry and damaged skin, rashes, diaper irritations, etc. Calendula Oil was has been used for centuries in recipes for Eczema and other common itchy skin irritations.  

CAMELLIA SEED (Camellia Oleifera) OIL
Camellia Oil is very high in Oleic acid (it has the highest concentration of all natural oils) and also contains other essential fatty acids such as Omega-6 Linoleic acid.  Oleic acid is deeply penetrating and can permeate into the lower levels of the stratum corneum.  It is an excellent transdermal carrier of nutrients and bioactive compounds to collagen and elastin.

Obtained from the Candelilla plant.  Practically insoluble in water and lightly soluble in alcohol.  Used in emollients to protect the skin against moisture loss.  No known toxicity.

An emollient formed of Capric Acid (obtained from a large group of American plants) and Glycerin.  
CARNAUBA (Copernicia Cerifera) WAX
Is the exudate from the leaves of the Brazilian wax palm tree.  

CARROT SEED (Daucus Carota) OIL
Skin care is one of Carrot Seed oil's primary uses.  Carrot Seed oil is rich in beta-carotene and vitamins B, C, D and E.  It is a great emollient and although carrot seed oil is beneficial for any skin type, it is especially advantageous for dry, damaged and mature skin.

CASTOR (Ricinus Communis) SEED OIL
The oil is expressed from the beans and is rich in fatty acids that are known to be soothing and moisturising to the skin.  The oil acts as a humectant, attracting moisture from the air to the skin.

Widely used ether of Cetearyl Alcohol.  It is used as an emulsifier in our Mango & Papaya and Pomegranate Body Butters.  

An emulsifying wax that is a mixture chiefly of the fatty alcohols - cetyl and stearyl.  It is used primarily in ointments as an emulsifier.  It is derived from Coconut fatty alcohol and is employed as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener and carrying agent for other ingredients.  

These ingredients are Organic and EcoCert certified as natural and organic.  They are natural glucolipid emulsifiers and are a combination of fatty alcohols and alkyl glucosides, specially balanced to offer outstanding emulsifying properties. They have a smooth texture, excellent skin compatibility and biodegradability.

NPA and ECOCERT approved.  This product is natural in origin and is a stable and consistent emulsifier that works well in creams and lotions.

This PEG-free emulsifier is developed from natural olive chemistry. It is a powerful emulsifier and thickener which is compatible with a wide variety of cosmetic and active ingredients.  Safe and clinically tested to be hypoallergenic, it provides creams with an excellent spreadability with no soapy effect    

Made from Cetearyl Alcohol and glucose and used as a natural emulsifier.

Cetostearyl alcohol is another name for Cetearyl Alcohol. 

Cetyl Alcohol is a gentle humectant (draws moisture from the air and promotes its retention) and provides body and a soft feel in formulations.  Cetyl alcohol is used as a surfactant in shampoos and hair conditioners, as an emollient, an emulsifier and a thickening agent in skin creams and lotions.  Cetyl Alcohol is no longer produced from whale oil, but is instead produced from vegetable oils such as palm oil and coconut oil.
The oil distilled from the dried flower heads of Matricaria Chamomilla.  Used internally as a soothing tea and tonic extract and externally as a soothing medication for contusions and other inflammation.

A component of some fragrances and essential oils.  

One of the most widely used acids in the cosmetic industry it is derived from citrus fruit by the fermentation of crude sugars.  Employed as a preservative and sequestering ingredient (to stabilise texture and appearance), to adjust pH balance and act as a foam inhibitor.  It is also used as an astringent.  No known toxicity.

A component of some fragrances and essential oils.  

COCOA BUTTER (Theobroma Butter)
A solid fat expressed from the roasted seeds of the Cocoa plant.  Cocoa Butter contains natural antioxidants. It is naturally rich in Vitamin E as well as a number of other vitamins and minerals. Vitamin E helps to soothe, hydrate, and balance the skin. Cocoa Butter (like chocolate) also contains cocoa mass polyphenol (CMP), a substance that inhibits the production of the immuno globulin IgE. IgE is known to aggravate symptoms of dermatitis.  Cocoa Butter is a superb emollient which lubricates the skin and has excellent skin softening and conditioning properties.  It softens and melts at body temperature.  

A mild safe surfactant derived from Coconut Oil and Beets.  It is often coupled with other surfactants.  Used in our Cleanse Me 4 in 1 Wash.

A component of some fragrances and essential oils.  

CRANBERRY (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) SEED OIL
A cold pressed oil very high in essential fatty acids, phytosterols and anti-oxidants.  It is a very nourishing plant oil.

Cucumber extract is known as a cooling and calming anti-inflammatory ingredient that has skin tightening properties.  It is rich in vitamins, minerals and enzymes essential for strong cell growth and repair. 

A widely used silicone in skin conditioners derived from silica (sand).
Cyclomethicones are unmodified silicones that possess a cyclical structure. Unmodified silicones stay on or near the surface of the skin as the molecules are too big to physically enter past the upper living cells - they associate with the upper layer of drying skin. Cyclomethicones evaporate quickly after helping to carry oils into the top layer of epidermis. From there, the oils may be absorbed by the skin.  Used in our Mango & Papaya and Pomegranate body butters.

The essential oil of Cypress is a natural astringent and deodorant.  The properties of Cypress make it an effective ingredient in products designed to cleanse the skin naturally.

An Ecocertified non-paraben based preservative system that provides broad spectrum anti-bacterial and anti-fungal protection.

D-PANTHENOL – see ProVitamin B5

EDTA is the chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.  EDTA is a chelating agent, forming coordination compounds to remove trace metals.  It is added to cosmetics to work in synergy with preservatives, to improve product stability and reduce water hardness.  It is found in our soaps.

The berries of the Elder tree (Sambucus nigra) have been used for centuries and were often brewed into medicinal wine. Elderberry Extract is thought to possess powerful antioxidant properties which attack harmful free radicals that damage cells.

The oily liquid obtained from plants through a variety of processes.  The essential oil usually has the taste and smell of the original plant.  Essential oils are called volatile because most of them are easily vapourised.  A large number of essential oils have some anti-septic, germicidal and preservative actions.      
Eucalyptus is an organic essential oil that comes from the Eucalyptus Globulus. Eucalyptus oil is a strong antiseptic. Eucalyptus essential oil is fantastic on skin ailments such as burns, blisters, wounds, insect bites, lice and skin infections, as well as to combat the effects of colds and the flu. There is also a history of Eucalyptus essential oil being applied to sore muscles and joints.

A component of some fragrances and essential oils.  

EVENING PRIMROSE (Oenothera Biennis) OIL
The leaves and oil from the seed are used by herbalists to treat liver and kidney dysfunctions.  The oil has a high content of linoleic acid (GLA), an essential fatty acid that is converted into prostaglandins and hormones.  It is used as a tonic for inflammatory conditions.  It has been recommended for infantile eczema.

Any natural or synthetic substance or combination of substances used solely to impart odour to a cosmetic product.

Frankincense oil is beneficial for normal, combination and oily skin and is rejuvenating for mature skin. It can help clear acne and reduce the appearance of scars. Frankincense oil can also soothe and speed healing of skin wounds and inflammation.

A component of some fragrances and essential oils.  

This uplifting oil has a great all-over balancing effect and this extends to the skin, where it helps to create balance between oily and dry skin. Geranium Bourbon can also be used to relieve feelings of stress and anxiety, promoting a sense of inner peace.

GLYCERIN (Vegetable)
Vegetable glycerin is a compound that comes from vegetable oil. It has strong humectant properties, meaning it is able to retain moisture.  Because it is natural and soluble in water, it has a valuable role to play in skin care products. There are many benefits to vegetable glycerin.  It has excellent moisturizing properties which aid in keeping skin looking young and healthy, retaining moisture is vital for keeping skin in its best condition.  It draws oxygen into the skin, which is beneficial for anti-aging. 
Vegetable glycerin is hypoallergenic and antibacterial, and will not inflame or irritate problem skins making it ideal for use in moisturisers.

This essential fatty acid, derived from natural stearic acid and glycerin, contains sodium and potassium. It serves as an emulsifier and is used     to soften and smooth the skin.  This is a popular emulsifier and emollient used in cosmetic preparations such as creams and lotions, providing stability as well as excellent texture.  It can also be used to create a pearlised effect.  

Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA) derived from sugar cane.  It aids in the exfoliation of skin cells and attracts moisture to the skins surface.

Contains chemical constituents such as proanthocyanidins, polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, all of which are very potent antioxidants that help for diminish the sun’s damaging effects and reduce free-radical damage.

GRAPESEED (Vitis Vinifera) OIL
A rich emollient.  Grapeseed Oil is high in Vitamin E, Omega 6 fatty acids, linoelic acid, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants.  It is slightly astringent so also helps tighten and tones skin.  It is often recommended for use on damaged and stressed tissues as it possesses regenerative qualities which aid controlled skin moisturisation. It can help skin retain the normal structure of epithelium cells and is noted to be especially effective in aiding repair of the skin around the eyes. Used as an all-over skin moisturizer, grape seed oil is said to reduce the look of stretch marks.  No known toxicity.

GREEN TEA (Camellia sinensis) EXTRACT
Green tea is the most consumed beverage in the world, second only to water. A native to Asia, green tea is rich in antioxidants known for their ability to help fight diseases and maintain healthy cell structure.  

Guar hydroxypropyltrimonium is a thickener and stabiliser. It also has conditioning and detangling properties.

Hyaluronic Acid occurs naturally and is known for its ability to retain water.  In our skin, hyaluronic acid can be found in the epidermis, where it assists with water retention to help keep skin supple.  Unfortunately it decreases in volume as we age.  As a result moisturisers that contain this ingredient help to attract and hold moisture to the skin.  Hyaluronic acid has the ability to fight skin inflammation and irritation and to help minimise acne scars.  Its moisture retaining properties make it a great anti-aging ingredient.  

Used to colour cosmetics.  Any of several natural oxides of iron that vary in colour from red to brown, black to orange or yellow, depending on the degree of water added and the purity.

A component of some fragrances and essential oils.  

Jojoba Beads are made from natural Jojoba wax esters. They are free-flowing, microspheres which are perfectly round with no sharp edges.  This makes them superior to nut shell, pumice and polyethylene exfoliants for facial skin care products, because they do not leave micro-lacerations, which damage the skins surface. Exfoliating agents that do create microscopic cuts can result in premature wrinkles and provide an entrance for bacteria into the skin's surface.

JOJOBA (Simmondsia Chinensis) SEED OIL
Jojoba Oil is extracted from the bean like seeds of the desert shrub Simondsia.  It is a liquid wax used for its moisturising and anti-inflammatoyry qualities.  Jojoba Oil is a hypoallergenic plant oil rich in Vitamin E and is also a natural anti-oxidant.  The chemical constituents of Jojoba Oil are very similar to those of human sebum making it a great choice for use in skin care.  It also has some anti-bacterial abilities, is a wonderful natural moisturiser for all skin types and is well known for its ability not to clog pores.

Juniper Berry Essential Oil is credited as being a supportive, restoring, and a tonic aid. In skincare it is said to aid in balancing oily skin and hair.  A facial steam with juniper oil is a wonderful aid to balancing oily skin or to soften blackheads.

KOWHAI (Sophora Microphylla) EXTRACT
An extract from the Kowhai plant which is a native to New Zealand.  It has natural anti-microbial and has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties.

KUMERAHOU (Pomaderris Kumeraho) LEAF EXTRACT
A natural ingredient with emollient properties which provides a gentle foaming action to aid cleansing.

A product from the oil glands of sheep.  A water absorbing base mineral and natural emulsifier, it absorbs and holds water to the skin. Chemically a wax instead of a fat.  It will not prevent or cure wrinkles and will not stop hair loss as some have claimed in the past.   
A gentle biodegradable, environmentally friendly, mild foaming agent (surfactant).  Made from coconut oil and sugar (glucose). 

LAVENDER (Lavandula Augustifolia) OIL
Lavender oil has a number of benefits for the skin, many of which can be attributed to its anti-septic and anti-bacterial properties.  It helps reduce inflammation, has skin balancing properties and assists the formation of scar tissue and therefore aids wound healing. In addition lavender essential oil, and its classic floral fragrance, has a reputation for assisting with relaxation.

Lemon essential oil is antibacterial, antiseptic and antiviral.  In skin care Lemon Oil helps to cleanse and brighten skin.  It also aids in the removal of dead skin cells as a result of exfoliating properties.
LICORICE (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) ROOT EXTRACT

A natural extract that contains isoflavonoids, flavonoids and phytosterols.  It has anti-bacterial and skin soothing properties and has been shown to assist in the relief of eczema.  Licorice root extract has been tested in a number of clinical and medical trials and has been repeatedly shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory.  It also inhibits melanin production, giving it the ability to naturally brighten and lighten the skin and minimise hyperpigmentation.

Lime essential oil has a sweet buoyant scent.  It contains substances that are antiseptic and astringent giving it properties similar to those of Lemon essential oil.

A component of some fragrances and essential oils.  

A component of some fragrances and essential oils.  

MACADAMIA NUT (Macadamia Ternifolia) OIL
Macadamia nut oil has the highest content of palmitoleic acid of any plant.  This acid is naturally present in the sebum of young individuals but tends to decrease with aging.  Macadamia Nut oil is therefore very useful in combating dry or mature skins.  The oil is absorbed easily by the skin and is therefore a great skin softener and moisturiser.  It also contains high levels of anti-oxidant Vitamin E.  

Is a purified natural clay which is used to thicken and stabilise formulations.

The organic salt of magnesium.

A magnesium salt, commonly used in bath salts.  No known toxicity when used in the bath.

MANGO (Mangifera Indica) BUTTER
It produces a rich juicy fruit with a hard pit from which the oil/butter is extracted.  Mango Butter is highly emollient, softening and soothing to the skin.  Mango butter contains high levels of oleic acid and stearic acid, anti-oxidant Vitamin C and also contains phytosterols & triterpenes which give mild sun protection properties.  Mango butter helps heal and protect the skin and is useful in helping soothe insect bites, rashes, dry skin complaints and sun burn.

MANGO (Mangifera Indica) SEED OIL
Mango Seed Oil has powerful anti-oxidant and exfoliating properties and is a perfect ingredient for all skin types.  It is effective in the treatment of dry skin conditions and provides some protection against ultraviolet radiation.  Mango Seed Oil melts when it comes in contact with the skin making it a fabulous ingredient to use in lip balms.

MANUKA HONEY (Leptospermum Scoparium Mel)
Some Manuka Honey has a ‘Unique Manuka Factor’ which refers to its non-peroxide level of antibacterial activity.  This factor provides an additional potent anti-bacterial action on top of the usual antibacterial abilities of all honeys. It has also been shown to diffuse deeper into skin tissues. 

Manuka Honey is tested for its level of non-peroxide activity and issued with a number. So a rating of 10 indicates the same level of antiseptic potency of a 10% solution of Phenol (Carbolic Disinfectant).  The higher the rating, the higher the activity level is, and therefore the greater the healing ability.

In addition to its antibacterial abilities Manuka honey has been shown to be deeply penetrating and hygroscopic (attracts moisture to it), and therefore, very hydrating.  It has anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties and has demonstrated the ability to accelerate tissue repair, aiding in skin repair and the reduction of scarring.

Marshmellow extract produces a coating that soothes irritation and is useful for treating inflammation making it an ideal ingredient in the skin care formulations.

MEADOWFOAM (Limnanthes Alba) OIL
Meadowfoam oil is a highly moisturising plant oil which helps form a barrier preventing moisture loss when applied to the skin.

Used together in cosmetics as a broad spectrum preservative.  A preservative system adopted by some companies to avoid the use of formaldehyde releasing preservatives.  The CIR Expert Panel concludes that it can be safely used in ‘rinse off’ products at a concentration not to exceed 15ppm and in ‘leave on’ products not to exceed 7.5 ppm as it can be a moderate skin sensitiser.  We use only in rinse off products at 0.0015%.

Octyl methoxycinnamate is a compound used in many sunscreens. It absorbs ultraviolet light in the UVB range (290-320 nanometers) and is an FDA approved sunscreen.  Used in our Protect Me Lip Balm. 
Olive Oil is an excellent emollient that smoothes and softens the skin.  Olive oil contains squalene, squalane, and hydroxytyrosol, all of which are extremely beneficial to skin as they contain anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties.  It also contains Vitamin E, poliphenols, flavanoids and oleic acid.  Olive oil penetrates deep into the skin and helps relieve the itching associated with dermatitis, eczema and psorisis.

OLIVE (Olea Europaea) BUTTER
Olive Butter is a natural product obtained from cold pressed olive oils and vegetable oils.  Olive butter contains a complex triglyceride cotaining fatty acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, tocopherols, squalene and polyphenols which are beneficial to the skin.  It is a creamy emollient which spreads beautifully and penetrates the skin well.  Great for combating dry skin.

PAPAYA (Carica Papaya) EXTRACT
It contains an enzyme, papain, used medicinally to prevent adhesions.  Because of its protein-digesting ability, it can dissolve necrotic (dead) material.

Patchouli is an effective anti-inflammatory for the skin and aids in the repair of cracked or inflamed skin, acne, dermatitis and eczema.  It helps to regulate oily skin and is said to improve skin tone.  It is an excellent base note for perfume blends pf essential oils. 
Peppermint Essential Oil is one of the basic necessities for a first aid kit.  Peppermint oil constricts the capillaries and is therefore very cooling when used in low dilutions.  In skincare these weak dilutions are helpful for easing itching or irritation.

Used in a wide variety of cosmetics as a mild preservative.  It is particularly effective at protecting water-based products, such as moisturisers, from bacterial contamination

Bee pollen is often referred to as nature's most complete food.  It is actually pollen from flowers that is collected from bees as they enter the hive or is harvested by other means. It is an excellent source of protein, free amino acids and vitamins including B-complex and folic acid and has been reported to assist in the nourishment of skin and stimulation of cell renewal.

Polysorbate-60 is a non-toxic emulsifier used to dissolve oils (often essential oils) into water, without the use of alcohol. It is a semi-synthetic ingredient derived from Lauric Acid (from Coconut Oil).  Used in our Very Hardworkers Handcreme.

POHUTUKAWA (Metrosideros Excelsa) EXTRACT
An extract of the native New Zealand Pohutukawa plant with astringent characteristics.  Has been used by Maori for centuries for its soothing, healing and antiseptic properties.

Several recent studies have shown pomegranate has the ability to improve wound healing, resulting in faster repair of skin cuts and scrapes. It also appears to play a positive role in the repair of skin damaged due to sun exposure and aging. Extracts of pomegranate are thought to exert their positive effects on skin aging by extending the life of fibroblasts, the cells responsible for producing collagen and elastin.

A Natural Products Association approved emulsifier which is recognised as being non-irritating to the skin.

Is the potassium salt of sorbic acid (natural fatty acid).  In water potassium sorbate releases sorbic acid which is an active preservative agent.  It is widely used as a preservative in both foods & cosmetics and is very effective against molds, yeast and bacteria.

Pro Vitamin B5 (also known as panthenol) is a humectant, emollient and a moisturiser. Pro Vitamin B5 binds to the hair shaft and is therefore a great ingredient for use in both shampoos and conditioners.  It coats the hair and seals its surface, lubricating the hair shaft and making strands appear shiny and smooth.
Propolis is another amazing ingredient from the hive.  It is a resin found in beehives and the literal translation from Greek is ‘Defender of the City’. It is used to seal gaps that may let predators in, to prevent decomposition within the hive and to inhibit bacterial infection within the colony. The use of propolis in the hive creates a highly complex immune defence system which makes the bee hive the most sterile environment known in nature.  Propolis consists of resinous compounds and balsams, beeswax, aromatic oils and bee pollen.  Propolis has a high flavanoid content and in laboratory tests, has exhibited a variety of anti-microbial and anti-tumour properties.

Pumice is a volcanic rock that is light weight and has exceptional exfoliating abilities.  Finely ground it retains its abrasive qualities and can be blended with cleansing and moisturising agents.  Used in our Very Hardworkers Soap it is great at cutting through dirt, grease and grime and delivers far greater scouring power than soap alone can deliver.
Extraordinarily high in Omega-3 and Omega 6 fatty acids, Rasperry Seed oil is a superb anti-oxidant. It contains 83% essential fatty acids. Its high level of Vitamin E is known to be give it an important role in skin repair and conditioning.  Raspberry Oil is known to assist in the prevention of rashes, eczema and other skin lesions.  Raspberry seed oil is emollient, lubricating, conditioning, creates a lipid barrier providing protection to the skin and provides moisture retention for the skin.  

The ester of Vitamin A and palmitic acid, sometimes mixed with Vitamin D2.  Vitamin A can help reduce wrinkles and even acne. It has been used in prescription anti-wrinkle and anti-acne creams for years. It has also been shown to help repair sun damaged skin, reduce brown spots, and increase smoothness. It may even help prevent skin cancer.

Is a by-product of rose essential oil and has a very pretty scent. It is both hydrating and gently astringent.  

Rose Moroc Absolute is a very common oil in the perfume and aromatic industry. Aromatherapists also credit it with being an exotic aphrodisiac, an emollient in skin care products, and a balancer of the spirit.

ROSEHIP (Rosa Canina) OIL
Rosehip Oil is beneficial to the skin as 80% of its constituents are essential fatty acids, namely oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid.  They are known as ‘essential’ fatty acids because our skin is not able to reproduce them yet they help to nourish and maintain skin health. Rosehip Oil also contains Vitamins A and C.  It is a rejuvenating oil that helps to soothe and heal scars, burns and recurring dry skin complaints.

Rosemary Essential Oil is best used as a facial oil for extremely dry skin. It nourishes the scalp and keeps hair looking healthy and shiny. It normalizes excessive oil secretions and improves most scalp problems, particularly dandruff and seborrhea. Rosemary Oil also balances intense emotions and controls mood swings. It assists in managing stress and overcoming stress-related disorders and nervous exhaustion.

It is extensively used in the cosmetics industry and included in natural skin care products for its antioxident properties and its fragrance. It is an effective anti-oxidant used to prolong the shelf life of oils and is therefore a safe choice to help preserve oil quality in skin care products containing good volumes of natural oils.

Royal Jelly is the very nutritious secretion released from the glands of the worker honey bee.  It is a complex substance that cannot be recreated synthetically by man.  It is fed to the larvae in the colony, to all queen larvae and the adult queen.  It is a mixture of proteins, fats, 15% carbohydrates, mixed growth factors, Vitamin B, 17 different amino acids and a number of trace elements.  It also contains approx 15% aspartic acid which is important for tissue growth and cell regeneration.  Royal jelly has been used in skin care for many years.  Egyptians used royal jelly as part of their skin care regime to keep their skin moisturised and protected.  The abundance of vitamins and minerals contained in Royal Jelly make it an excellent choice for skin care.

SANDALWOOD (Santalum Spicatum) OIL
Sandalwood Essential Oil is mainly used in perfumery, cosmetics, and aromatherapy. Sandalwood Essential Oil is considered to have strong anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties.

This bright orange fruit contains up to 16 times more vitamin C than kiwifruit, plus flavonoids, vitamin E, vitamin A and several other carotenes, including beta-carotene, lycopene and zeaxanthin.  It also contains essential fatty acids and vitamins B1, B2 and K.  Sea buckthorn oil also has a high content of the rare palmitoleic acid, which is also a natural component of skin fat.  It is beneficial as a restorative and an anti-aging ingredient in skin care products as the essential fatty acid and anti-oxidant components help reverse the damaging effects of sun radiation and promote natural restorative processes within the skin.
SESAME SEED (Sesamum Indicum) OIL
Sesame Seed Oil gets utilised in a wide range of everyday products.  It acts as a skin softener in skin care products.

SHEA BUTTER / KARITE BUTTER (Butyrospermum Parkii)
Sourced from the nut of the native African tree, shea nut butter contains high levels of Oleic acid and Stearic acid.  It is also rich in vitamins A & E and offers exceptional moisturising and protective properties along with anti-inflammatory benefits.  It penetrates the skin easily and results in a softer, plumper texture. The phenolic compounds found in shea nut butter provide anti-aging benefits & the phytosterol, triterpene & cinnamic acid offer natural sun protection.  Great for dry and sensitive skins.

Sodium Benzoate is the salt of Benzoic Acid and is used as a preservative in skin care to keep formulations safe to use.

Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate is a gentle cleansing agent used to help cleanse, soften and protect the skin. It is derived from coconut oil.  

Common table salt.  Used as an astringent and antiseptic.  It consists of opaque white crystals.  It absorbs water.  Used topically to treat inflamed lesions.  Diluted solutions are non-irritating.  Commonly found in our soaps.

The white, semi-solid, highly saturated fat expressed from the kernels of the coconut.  Widely used in the manufacture of cosmetics and soaps it lathers readily and is a fine skin cleanser.  Usually blended with other fats.  

Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate is made by reacting a fatty acid with lactic acid.  It is a foaming agent and has foam boosting properties.  It has cleansing abilities and is milder than most surfactants.

EDTA is the chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.  EDTA is a bio-degradable chelating agent, forming coordination compounds to bond with trace minerals to prevent them from causing bacterial growth.  It can be added to cosmetics to work in synergy with preservatives, to improve product stability and reduce water hardness.  Used in our soaps at >0.05%.

SODIUM ETIDRONATE                 
A bio-degradable water softener and chelating agent which aids preservation of soaps.  Used in our soaps.

Sodium Lauroamphoaetate is a mild surfactant which is also used as a lather agent.  It is a gentle sulphate free alternative.
A mixture of fatty acids from palm-kernel oil.  Used as an opacifier, surfactant and emulsifier.  Used in many of our Soaps.

Sodium salt of palmitic acid.  Sodium palmate is the soap created from palm oil when it is mixed with sodium hydroxide. It lathers and cleanses well without being harsh. It forms the base of many soaps.

NPA and ECOCERT approved it is natural in origin and is a powerful oil in water emulsifier. It is compatible with water soluble UV filters, supports the formation of gels and has the ability to formulate at skins natural PH.

Works as a humectant and thickening agent.  It has similar properties as glycerin.

Squalene is derived from olive oil.  It is naturally present in human sebum and when included in formulations has a high resistance to oxidation and a high affinity to skin.  The natural lipids possess excellent skin-penetrating qualities which help reduce fine lines.  It is a non-irritating, non-allergenic ingredient which does not clog the pores.
This naturally occurring acid is vegetable based, which can be derived from either palm or coconut.  A white waxy, natural fatty acid, it is the major ingredient in making bar soaps.  The CIR Expert Panel concludes that this ingredient is safe for use in cosmetic products.   

SWEET ALMOND (Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis) OIL
Used in skin care products and the manufacture of fine soaps.  Expressed from the seeds of the plant it is an emollient, skin softener and conditioner and helps skin balance its loss and absorption of moisture.  The benefits of almond oil come from the fact that it is high in minerals, protein, naturally occurring vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6 and E) and in mono and poly-unsaturated fatty acids.  Helps relieve itchy, dry and inflamed skin.  Its soothing and anti-inflammatory characteristics make it suitable for use on all skin types.

Sweet Orange Essential oil has a pleasant citrus aroma and is beneficial for dry, mature and sun damaged skins.  It is a mild oil and is useful to help soothe the symptoms of eczema.
TEA TREE (Melaleuca Alternifolia) OIL
The essential oil obtained from the leaves of the Australian tree.  Tea Tree Essential Oil is best known as a very powerful immune stimulant. It can help to fight all three categories of infectious organisms (bacteria, fungi, and viruses).   It is eleven to thirteen times as powerful as carbolic acid solution.  Penetrates the skin quickly, and accelerates the healing of skin disorders.  For skin, Tea Tree is used to combat acne and oily skin.

The greatest covering and tinting power of any white pigment.  Occurs naturally in three different crystal forms.  Used as a natural colourant.  No known toxicity when used externally.

Vitamin E is a natural oil and strong anti-oxidant which helps prevent the formation of free radicals on the skin.  This helps protect the skin against damage from environmental stresses that can cause these free radicals to be present, such as ultraviolet radiation and pollution.  Vitamin E has been cited as having positive effects on the wound healing process and possesses the ability to retard the conversion of soluble collagen to insoluble collagen (which is responsible for scar tissue formation).  Some studies have shown that it may increase your natural SPF, help decrease sun damage and help soothe and repair sun damaged skin. Vitamin E oil also has moisture retaining and anti-inflammatory properties. 

Urea is a very good moisturising agent for dry skin.  Urea is naturally present in the uppermost layers of the skin, so it can be considered a skin-identical repairing ingredient.

Vegetable glycerin is a compound that comes from vegetable oil. It has strong humectant properties, meaning it is able to retain moisture.  Because it is natural and soluble in water, it has a valuable role to play in skin care products. There are many benefits to vegetable glycerin.  It has excellent moisturizing properties which aid in keeping skin looking young and healthy, retaining moisture is vital for keeping skin in its best condition. It draws oxygen into the skin, which is beneficial for anti-aging. 
Vegetable glycerin is hypoallergenic and antibacterial, and will not inflame or irritate problem skins making it ideal for use in moisturisers.

VITAMIN A (Retinyl Palmitate)
The ester of Vitamin A and palmitic acid.  Vitamin A can help reduce wrinkles and even acne. It has been used in prescription anti-wrinkle and anti-acne creams for years. It has also been shown to help repair sun damaged skin, reduce brown spots, and increase smoothness.

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic Acid)
Used as an anti-oxidant in cosmetic creams, it also has some preservative abilities and aids skin cells in repairing and reproducing themselves.  When applied topically it may help reduce lines and wrinkles, promote healing, aid in the development of collagen, and can even help increase your natural sun protection factor (SPF) to decrease sun damage. It is also an anti-oxidant, so it may help to reduce free-radical damage to skin.
VITAMIN E (Tocopheryl Acetate)
Vitamin E is a natural oil and strong anti-oxidant which helps prevent the formation of free radicals on the skin.  This helps protect the skin against damage from    environmental stresses that can cause these free radicals to be present, such as ultraviolet radiation and pollution.  Vitamin E has been cited as having positive effects on the wound healing process and possesses the ability to retard the conversion of soluble collagen to insoluble collagen (which is responsible for scar tissue formation).  Some studies have shown that it may increase your natural SPF to decrease sun damage and help soothe and repair sun damaged skin. Vitamin E oil also has moisture retaining and anti-inflammatory properties.

The major constituent of all living matter and the ingredient used the most in the cosmetic industry.  It is important that water used in cosmetics is sterile to avoid contamination of the product.

A blend of amino acids from wheat protein after it has been broken down via hydrolysis. Most often used in hair-care products as a conditioning agent, but also found in some skin-care products.

A group of organic compounds, occurring abundantly in plants that yield a sugar and one or more non-sugar substances on hydrolysis.  Glycosides play many important roles in living organisms, and numerous plant-produced glycosides are used as medications.

Grapefruit Essential Oil is also purifier of congested, oily and acne prone skin and is sometimes added to creams and lotions as a natural toner and cellulite treatment. Grapefruit Essential Oil is reputed to ease nervous exhaustion and relieve depression.

One of the most widely used cosmetic ingredients, it is a skin freshener, local anaesthetic, and astringent made from the leaves and/or twigs of Hamamelis virginiana.
Used on skin witch hazels astringent properties reduces inflammation, tightens pores and removes excess oil.  Witch hazel also contains procyanadins, resin, and flavonoids, all of which contribute to its anti-inflammatory and soothing properties.  Witch hazel has an ethanol content of 70-80% and a tannin content of 2-9%.
A gum produced by a pure culture fermentation of a carbohydrate with Xanthomonas campestris.  Also called Corn Sugar Gum.  Widely used as a thickener, an emulsifier and a stabiliser. No known toxicity.
A natural Zinc Oxide dispersion for use in sunscreens.  Zinc Oxide is a naturally occurring mineral which reflects damaging UVA and UVB rays by creating a physical barrier on the surface of the skin.  This stops the rays from reaching the living tissues in your skin where they can then cause damage.  We use micronised zinc oxide (not the smaller nanoparticle variety) as it is provides natural and effective sun protection without penetrating the outer layer of skin.  Additionally, it blends well with other ingredients to create a nice non-greasy formulation, and does not leave a white film on the skin like many other SPF ingredients.